In-House Bibliography



Association of the Bar of the City of New York, The Law of Presidential Impeachment, New York, Association of the Bar of the City of New York (1974).

Irving Brant, Impeachment: Trials and Errors (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1972).

Richard Boeckel, Impeachment Trials by Sentate (1926).

Collier, Charles W. and Christopher Slobogin,Terms of Endearment and Articles of Impeachment, 51 FLA. L. REV. 615 (1999).

R.B.M Cotterrell, “Lessons of Impeachment,” 124 New L.J. 784 (1974).

Theodore Dwight, “Trial by Impeachment,” 6 Am. L. Register (N.S.) 257 (1867).

George H Ethridge, “Law of Impeachment,” 8 Miss. L.J. 283 (1936).

Paul S. Fenton, “The Scope of the Impeachment Power,” 65 Nw. U. L. Rev.  719 (1970).

Michael J. Gerhardt, The Constitutionality of Censure, 33 U. Rich. L. Rev. 33 (1999).

Michael J. Gerhardt, The Lessons of Impeachment History, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 603 (1999).

Arthur J. Goldberg, “Question of Impeachment,” 1 Hastings Const. L.Q. 5 (1974).

Ken Gormley, Impeachment and the Independent Counsel: A Dysfunctional Union, 51 STAN. L. REV. 309 (1999).

M.T. Van Hecke, “Pardons In Impeachment Cases,” 24 Mich. L. Rev.  657 (1926).

David E. Kyvig, The Age of Impeachment: American Constitutional Culture Since 1960 (2008).

Richard M. Pious, Impeaching the President: The Intersection of Constitutional and Popular Law, 43 St. Louis U. L.J. 859 (1999).

Edward McWhinney, “Congress and the Presidency and the Impeachment Power,” 7 Ind. L. Rev.  833 (1974).

Vincent O’Donovan, “Impeachment,” 123 New L.J. 572 (1973).

C.S. O’Donovan, “Impeachment as Remedy,” 12 St. Louis L. Rev.  15 (1926).

Peter W. Rodino, Jr., Paul A. Franzese, and Ronald J. Riccio, The Presidency in Crisis: a Conversation with Congressman Peter Rodino on October 8, 1998, 29 Seton Hall L. Rev. 978 (1999).

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Reflections on Impeachment, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 693 (1999).

Robert C. Stelle, Defining High Crimes and Misdemeanors: A Call for Stare Decisis, 15 J.L. & Pol. 309 (1999).

Cass R. Sunstein, Impeachment and Stability, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 699 (1999).

James Rogan, Catching our flag: behind the scenes of a presidential impeachment (2011).

Darnell Weeden, A Post-Impeachment Indictment of the Independent Counsel Statute, 28 N. Ky. L. Rev. 536 (2001).

Akhil Reed Amar, Trial and Tribulation — Warning: Constitutional Danger Ahead, New Republic 17 (1999).

Hugh Brown, A Plague on Both Your Houses: Challenges to the Role of the Independent Counsel in a Presidential Impeachment, 34 Tulsa L.J. 579 (1999).

David C. Huckabee, Paul S. Rundquist & Thomas H. Neale, Impeachment: frequently asked questions (1999).

Charles L. Black, Impeachment: a handbook (1998).

Steven D. Strauss & Spencer Strauss, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Impeachment of the President (1998).

David W. Dennis, Impeachment Revisited, 9 Ind. L. Rev 578 (1976).

Frank H. Easterbrook, Presidential Review, 40 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 905 (1990).

Beth Nolan, Removing Conflicts from the Administration of Justice: Conflicts of Interest and Independent Counsels Under the Ethics in Government Act, 79 Geo L.J. 1 (1990).

Peter W. Rodino, Jr., The Case For The Independent Counsel, 19 Seton Hall Legis. J. 5 (1994).

SIXTY-SEVENTH JUDICIAL CONFERENCE OF THE FOURTH CIRCUIT, “The Independent Counsel Process: Is It Broken and How Should It Be Fixed?” , 54 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 1515 (1997).

Harvie Wilkinson III, The Role of Reason in the Rule of Law, 56 U. Chi. L. Rev. 779 (1989).

Colin Campbell, The U.S. Presidency in Crisis: A Comparative Perspective, New York: Oxford University Press (1998). (A comparative law perspective on presidencies in crises using data from U.S., Great Britain, Canada and Australia.)

Dan E. Moldea, A Washington Tragedy: How the Death of Vincent Foster Ignited a Political Firestorm (Regnery, 1998).

Robert North Roberts and Marion T. Doss, Jr., From Watergate to Whitewater: the Public Integrity War (Westport: Praeger, 1997).

Christopher Ruddy, The Strange Death of Vincent Foster: an Investigation, (New York: Free Press, 1997).

Leonard W. Levy, Encyclopedia of the American Constitution (2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA 2000).

John V. Orth, Presidential Impeachment: The Original Misunderstanding, 17 Const. Comment. 587 (2000).

Historical Analysis:

Thomas Deavitt, Impeachment of the Secretary of the Interior (Ethan A. Hitchcock): Petition to Congress (1900).

Henry J. Hyde, Foreword: Background and History of Impeachment (Symposium), 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 601 (1999).

Buckner F. Melton, Jr., Federal Impeachment And Criminal Procedure: The Framers’ Intent, 52 Md. L. Rev. 437 (1993).

Jack N. Rackove, Statement on the Background and History of Impeachment, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 682 (1999).

Clayton Roberts, Law of Impeachment in Stuart England: a Reply to Raoul Berger, 84 Yale L.J. 1419 (1975).

Thomas O. Sargentich, The Limits of The Parliamentary Critique of The Separation of Powers, 34 William & Mary L. Rev. 679 (1993).

Emily Field Van Tassel & Paul Finkelman, Impeachable Offenses: A Documentary History From 1787 to the Present, (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1999).

Executive Issues, Powers, and Immunity:

Albert Broderick, “Citizen’s Guide to Impeachment of a President: Problem Areas,” 23 Cath. U. L. Rev. 205 (1973).

Steven G. Calabresi and Saikrishna B. Prakash, The President’s Power To Execute the Laws, 104 Yale L.J. 541 (1994).

Edward S. Corwin, The President. Office and Powers. (New York, New York University Press, 1957).

Edwin Brown Firmage, “Law of Presidential Impeachment,” 1973 Utah L. Rev.  681 (1973).

Edwin Brown Firmage, “Removal of the President: Resignation and the Procedural Law of Impeachment,” 1974 Duke L.J. 1023 (1974).

Eric M. Freedman, The Law as King and the King as Law: Is a President Immune from Criminal Prosecution Before Impeachment?, 20 Hastings Const. L.Q. 7 (1992).

Stanley N. Futterman, Rules of Impeachment, 24 Kan. L. Rev. 105 (1975).

Harold C. Havighurst, “Doing Away with Presidential Impeachment: The Advantages of Parliamentary Government,” 1974 Ariz. St. L.J. 223 (1974).

Scott W. Howe, The Prospect of a President Incarcerated, 2 Nexus, A J. of Opinion 86 (1997).

Joseph Isenbergh, Impeachment and Presidential Immunity from Judicial Process, 18 Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. 53 (1999).

Brian C. Kalt, Note, Pardon Me? The Constitutional Case Against Presidential Self-Pardons, 106 Yale L.J. (1996).

Gary Lawson and Christopher D. Moore, The Executive Power of Constitutional Interpretation, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 1267 (1996).

Jennifer L. Long, Note, How to Sue the President: A Proposal for Legislation Establishing the Extent of Presidential Immunity, 30 Val. U. L. Rev. 283 (1995).

Michael T Matraia, Note, Running for Cover Behind Presidential Immunity: The Oval Office as Safe Haven from Civil Suits, 29 Suffolk U.L Rev. 195 (1995).

Geoffrey M. McNutt and John F. Manning, Formal And Functional Approaches to Separation of Powers: The Political Cost of Checks And Balances in Nixon v. United States And Morrison v. Olson, 2 Geo. Mason U.L. Rev. 281 (1995).

Randall K. Miller, Congressional Inquests: Suffocating the Constitutional Prerogative of Executive Privilege, 81 Minn. L. Rev. 631 (1997).

Todd D. Peterson, The Role of the Executive Branch in the Discipline and Removal of Federal Judges, 1993 U. Ill. L. Rev. 809 (1993).

Michael Stokes Paulsen, But Cf, I’m Even Smarter than Bruce Ackerman: Why the President Can Veto His Own Impeachment, 16 Const. Comment. 1 (1999).

Peter and William C. Raven-Hansen, From Vietnam to Desert Shield: The Commander in Chief’s Spending Power, 81 Iowa L. Rev. 79 (1995).

Gregory Sidak, The President’s Power of the Purse, 47 Duke L.J. 1162 (1989).

Jonathan R. Siegel, Suing the President: Nonstatutory Review Revisited, 97 Colum. L. Rev. 1612 (1997).

Timothy Walthall, Note, “Executive Impeachment: Stealing Fire from the Gods,” 9 New. Eng. L. Rev.  257 (1974).

Francis X. Wright, Note, “Trial of Presidential Impeachment: Should the Ghost be Laid to Rest?”44 Notre Dame Law. 1089 (1969).

High Crimes and Misdemeanors and Impeachable Offenses

Lowell. Brown, High Crimes and Misdemeanors in Presidential Impeachment (2010).

Raoul Berger,  “Impeachment for ‘High Crimes and Misdemeanors’,” 44 S.Cal. L. Rev. 395 (1971).

Michael J. Broyde, “Expediting Impeachment: Removing Article III Federal Judges After Criminal Conviction,” 17 Harv. J.L and Pub. Pol’y 157 (1994).

Richard V. Falcon, “High Crimes and Misdemeanors: How, Why, and When to Impeach a President,” IV Md. L.F. 49 (1974).

Mark A McDermott, “The Truth, the Hole Truth”: Perjury and Obstruction as High Crimes and Misdemeanors, 46 FED. LAW. 24 (1999).

Paul E. McGreal, Impeachment as a Remedy for Ethics Violations, 41 S. TEX. L. REV. 1369 (2000).

Edward M. Mezvinsky and Doris S. Freedman, Federal Income Tax Evasion as an Impeachable Offense, 63 Geo. L.J. 1071 (1975).

Marby Rogers and Stephen B. Young, Public Office as a Public Trust: A Suggestion That Impeachment for High Crimes and Misdemeanors Implies a Fiduciary Standard, 63 Geo. L.J. 1025 (1975).

Maria Simon, Note, Bribery and Other Not So “Good Behavior”: Criminal Prosecution as a Supplement to Impeachment of Federal Judges, 94 Colum. L. Rev. 1617 (1994).

Jerome S. Sloan and Ira E. Garr. “Treason, Bribery or Other High Crimes and Misdemeanors — a Study of Impeachment,” 47 Temp. L.Q. 413 (1974).

Robert C Stelle, Defining High Crimes and Misdemeanors: A Call for Stare Decisis, 15 J.L. & POL. 309 (1999).

Laurence H. Tribe, Defining “High Crimes and Misdemeanors”: Basic Principles, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 712 (1999).

Issues of Congress and Congressional Power

Association of the Bar of the City of New York. Committee on Federal Legislation, Alternatives to Impeachment: What May Congress Do?, 54 Rec. Ass’n. B. City of N.Y. 13 (1999).

Rose Auslander, Note. “Impeaching The Senate’s Use of Trial Committees,” 67 NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 21 LAW REVIEW 68 (1992).

Steven Breker-Cooper, “The Appointments Clause And The Removal Power: Theory And Seance,” 60 Tenn. L. Rev, 841 (1993).

Steven G. Calabresi and Christopher S. Yoo, The Removal Power: The Unitary Executive During the First Half-Century, 47 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 1451 (1997).

Guide to Congress. (5th ed., Washington: CQ Press, 2000) (Includes bibliographical references and indexes).

Casper Gerhard, The Constitutional Organization of the Government, 26 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 177 (1985).

Michael J. Gerhardt, The Constitutional Limits to Impeachment and its Alternatives, 68 Tex. L. Rev. 1 (1989).

Michael J. Glennon, The Use of Custom in Resolving Separation of Powers Disputes, 64 B.U. L. Rev. 109 (1984).

James C. Ho, Misunderstood Precedent: Andrew Jackson and the Real Case Against Censure, 24 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 283 (2000).

Jonathan Turley, Congress as Grand Jury: The Role of the House of Representatives in the Impeachment of an American President, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 735 (1999).

John A. Taylor, Note, Impeachment as Applied to Executive Officers, Or, Can Congress Corner a Crooked Cabinet?, 15 New Eng. L. Rev. 160 (1979-80).

Structure and Process of Impeachment

Jennifer L. Blum, Comment, “How Much Process Is Due: The Senate Impeachment Trial Process After Nixon V. United States,” 44 Cath. U. L. Rev. 243 (1994).

Elizabeth B. Bazan, The Intersection Between the Former Presidents Act and the impeachment process (1998).

Elizabeth B. Bazan, Impeachment: an Overview of Constitutional Provisions, Procedure, and Practice (2010).

David Barton, Impeachment! Restraining an Overactive Judiciary (1998).

Clarence Cannon, Cannon’s Procedure in the House of Representatives, (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1939. Cf. “Precedence,” Section viii. LAW KF 4992 C22 1939 B.C. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary, 93d Congress, 2d Session, January, 1974).

Charles Doyle, Impeachment Grounds: a Collection of Selected Materials (1998).

Richard H. Fallon, Jr., Some Confusions About Due Process, Judicial Review, And Constitutional Remedies 93 Colum. L. Rev. 309 (1993).

Paul Goodrich, Note, Presidential Impeachment — Process, Problems and Proposals, 1975, Utah L. Rev. 199 (1975).

Heflin. “The Impeachment Process: Modernizing an Archaic System,” 71 Judicature 123 (1987).

Jefferson’s Manual and Rules of the House of Representatives, House of Representatives, 102nd Congress, 2d Session, (House Doc. 405, 1992).

Joseph Isenbergh, Note, Scope of the Power to Impeach, 84 YALE LAW JOURNAL 1316 (1975).

Barbara Jordan, Testimony Before the House Judiciary Committee, 5 Tex. J. Women & L. (1996).

Sanford Levinson, Constitutional Protestantism in Theory and Practice: Two Questions for Michael Stokes Paulsen and One for His Critics, 83 Geo L.J. 373 (1994).

J.D. Lydick, “Tyranny of Impeachment Procedure,” 8 N.Y.U. L. Rev.  257 (1930).

John O McGinnis, Impeachment: The Structural Understanding, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 650 (1999).

James Randolph Peck, Restoring the Balance of Power: Impeachment and the Twenty-Second Amendment, 8 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 759 (2000).

R.S. Rankin, “Is there a Time Limit for Impeachment?” 28 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. 866 (1934).

Martin H Redish, Judicial Discipline, Judicial Independence, and the Constitution: A Textual and Structural Analysis, 72 S. Cal. L. Rev. 673 (1999).

Barry Jeffrey Stern, Revealing Misconduct by Public Officials Through Grand Jury Reports, 136 U Pa. L. Rev. 73 (1987).

Senate Manual Containing Standing Rules, Orders, Laws, and Resolutions Affecting the Business of the United States Senate. Sen. Doc. 101-1 (1992).

Riddick’s Senate Procedure, Revd. and edited by Alan S. Frumin, Sen. Doc No. 101-28 (1992).

Issues of the Judiciary and Judicial Power:

Martin H. Belsky, Investigating the President: The Supreme Court and the Impeachment Process, 34 Tulsa L.J. 289 (1999).

Lynn A. Baker, Note, “Unnecessary and Improper: The Judicial Councils Reform and Judicial Conduct and Disability Act of 1980,” 94 Yale L.J. 1117 (1985).

Frank J. Battisti, “Independent Judiciary: Or, an Evanescent Dream,” 25 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 711 (1975).

Alan I. Baron, “The Curious Case of Alcee Hastings,” 19 Nova L. Rev. 873 (1995).

Karl M. Becker, Judicial Discipline and Removal (Chicago, American Judicature Society, 1968).

Raoul Berger, “Impeachment of Judges and ‘Good Behavior’ Tenure,” 79 Yale L.J 1475 (1970).

Charles B. Blackmar, “On the Removal of Judges: The Impeachment Trial of Samuel Chase,” 48 Am. Judicature Soc’y J.183 (1964).

Jacobus Ten Broek, “Partisan Politics and Federal Judgeship Impeachments Since 1903,” 23 Minn. U. L. REV.  185 (1939).

Wrisley Brown, “The Impeachment of the Federal Judiciary,” 26 Harv. L. Rev. 684 (1913).

Stephen L. Carter “The Political Aspects of Judicial Power: Some Notes on The Presidential Immunity Decision,” 131 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1341 (1983).

Stephen L. Carter, Comment, The Supreme Court, 1987 Term: The Independent Counsel Mess, 102 Harv. L. Rev. 105 (1988).

Erwin Chemerinsky, Controlling Inherent Presidential Power: Providing a Framework For Judicial Review, 56 S. Cal. L. Rev. 863 (1983).

Erwin Chemerisnky, A Paradox Without a Principle: a Comment on The Burger Court’s Jurisprudence in Separation of Powers Cases, 60 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1083 (1987).

Edward S. Corwin, Court Over Constitution: A Study of Judicial Review as an Instrument of Popular Government (New York, P. Smith, 1938).

John D. Feerick, “Impeaching Federal Judges: A Study of the Constitutional Provisions,” 39 Fordham L. Rev.  1 (1970).

Jack E. Frankel, “Discipline and Removal of Judges,” 38 Fla. Bar. J. 1033 (1964).

Steven W. Fitschen, Impeaching Federal Judges: A Covenantal and Constitutional Response to Judicial Tyranny, 10 Regent. U. L. Rev. 111 (1998).

Laura S. Fitzgerald, Cadenced Power: The Kinetic Constitution, 46 Duke L.J. 679 (1997).

Brendan C. Fox, “The Justiciability of Challenges to the Senate Rules of Procedure for Impeachment Trials,” 60 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1275 (1992).

Jon J. Gallo, Note, “Removal of Federal Judges: New Alternatives to an Old Problem,” 13 UCLA L. Rev.  1385 (1966).

Ira M. Goldberg, Essay on Raoul Berger’s Thesis for Judicial Intervention in the Process of the Removal of the President of the United States, 1975 Wis. L. Rev. 414 (1975).

Lisa A. Kainec, Comment, Judicial Review of Senate Impeachment Proceedings: Hands off Approach Appropriate?, 43 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 1499 (1993).

Robert Kramer and Jerome A. Brown, “The Constitutionality of Removal and Mandatory Procedures for the Federal Judiciary: The Meaning of ‘During Good Behavior’,” 36 U. Chi L. Rev. 665 (1969).

Philip B. Kurland, “Constitution and the Tenure of Federal Judges: Some Notes from History,” 35 Geo. Wash. L. Rev.  455 (1967).

Richard B. Lillich, “The Chase Impeachment,” 4 Am. J. Legal Hist. 49 (1960).

Randall K. Miller, The Collateral Matter Doctrine: The Justiciability of Cases Regarding the Impeachment Process, 22 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 777 (1996).

Sam Nunn, Judicial Tenure, 54 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 29 (1977).

Robert J. Pushaw, Jr., Justiciability And Separation of Powers: a Neo-Federalist Approach, 81 Cornell L. Rev. 393 (1996).

William H. Rehnquist, Political Battles for Judicial Independence, 50 Wash. L. Rev. 835 (1975).

Judith Rosenbaum and David L. Lee, Constitutional Perspective on Judicial Tenure, 61 Judicature 465 (1978).

J.F. Reinhardt, “Impeachment Proceedings Against Judge James Hawkins Peck,” 12 U. Kan. City L. Rev.  106 (1944).

G.W. Ross, “‘Good Behavior’ of Federal Judges,” 12 U. Kan. City L. Rev.  119 (1944).

Preble Stolz, “Disciplining Federal Judges: Is Impeachment Hopeless?” 57 Cal. L. Rev. 659 (1969).

Nicole H. Schneider, Comment, Senate Impeachment Trials – to Review or Not to Review, What Would Marshall Do?, 4 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 237 (1993).

Peter M. Shane, Who May Discipline or Remove Federal Judges? A Constitutional Analysis, 142 U. Pa. L. Rev. 209 (1993).

David Todd Smith, Casenote, Constitutional Law–impeachment Trial Clause–a Claim That Senate Impeachment Rule XI Violates The Impeachment Trial Clause Is a Nonjusticiable Political Question, 25 St. Mary’s L.J. 855 (1994).

J.P. Sweeney, Comment, Presidential Impeachment and Judicial Review, 23 Am. U. L. Rev. 959 (1975).

Adrian M. Tocklin, Pennoyer v. Neff: The Hidden Agenda of Stephen J. Field, 28 Seton Hall L. Rev. 75 (1997).

Frank Thompson and D.H. Pollitt, “Impeachment of Federal Judges: An Historical Overview,” 49 N.C.U. L. Rev.  87 (1970).

Elbert P. Tuttle and Dean W. Russell, Symposium: Separation of Powers: Preserving Judicial Integrity: Some Comments on the Role of the Judiciary under the ‘Blending’ of Powers, 37 Emory L.J. 587 (1988).

Emily Field Van Tassel, Resignations And Removals: a History of Federal Judicial Service–and Disservice–1789-1992, 142 U. Pa. L. Rev. 333 (1993).

Julian E. Williams, The Case Against Justice William O. Douglas (1970).

Constitutional Analysis and Separation of Powers:

Bruce Ackerman, Constitutional Politics/Constitutional Law, 99 Yale L.J. 453 (1989).

Raoul Berger, Impeachment: the Constitutional Problems (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1973).

Raoul Berger, “President, Congress, and the Courts,” 83 Y. L.J. 1111 (1974).

Frank O. Bowman and Stephen L. Sepinuck. “High Crimes & Misdemeanors”: Defining the Constitutional Limits on Presidential Impeachment, 72 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1517 (1999).

Theodore Y. Blumoff, “Illusions of Constitutional Decisionmaking: Politics and the Tenure Powers in the Court,” 73 Iowa L. Rev. 1079 (1988).

Joel K. Goldstien, Can the Vice President Preside at His Own Impeachment Trial?: A Critique of Bare Textualism, 44 St. Louis U. L.J. 849 (2000).

Gerald Gunther, “Judicial Hegemony and Legislative Autonomy: The Nixon (U.S. V. Nixon, 94 Sup. Ct. 19 3090) Case and the Impeachment Process,” 22 UCLA L. Rev.  30 (1974).

Harvard Law Review, Note, “Exclusiveness of the Impeachment Power under the Constitution,” 51 Harv. L. Rev.  330 (1937).

William B. Gwyn, The Indeterminacy of the Separation of Powers and the Federal Courts, 57 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 474 (1989).

Joel B. Grossman and David A. Yalof, The Day After: Do We Need a “Twenty-Eighth Amendment?”, 17 Const. Comment.7 (2000).

Eric Lardiere, Comment, The Justiciability And Constitutionality of Political Intelligence Gathering, 30 UCLA L. Rev. 976 (1983).

David I. Lewittes, Constitutional Separation of War Powers: Protecting Public And Private Liberty, 57 Brook. L. Rev. 1083 (1992).

Daniel Luchsinger, Committee Impeachment Trials: The Best Solution?, 80 Geo. L.J. 163 (1991).

Melissa H. Maxman, Note, In Defense of the Constitution’s Judicial Impeachment Standard, 86 Mich. L. Rev. 420 (1987).

Robert F. Nagel, The American Constitutional Tradition of Shared And Separated Powers: a Comment on The Rule of Law Model of Separation of Powers, 30 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 355 (1989).

William H. Rehnquist, “The American Constitutional Experience: Remarks of the Chief Justice, 54 La. L. Rev. 1161 (1994).

William H. Rehnquist, The Impeachment Clause: a Wild Card in The Constitution, 85 Nw. U. L. Rev. 903 (1991).

Ronald D. Rotunda, An Essay on the Constitutional Parameters of Federal Impeachment, 76 Ky. L.J. 707 (1988).

Peter Safirstein and Constance O’Keefe, Note, “Fallen Angels, Separation of Powers, And The Saturday Night Massacre: an Examination of The Practical, Constitutional, And Political Tensions in The Special Prosecutor Provisions of The Ethics in Government Act, 49 Brook. L. Rev. 113 (1982).

Paul R. Verkuil, The American Constitutional Tradition of Shared And Separated Powers: Separation of Powers, The Rule of Law And The Idea of Independence, 30 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 301 (1989).

Leon R. Yankwich, “Impeachment of Civil Officers under the Federal Constitution,” 26 Geo. L.J. 849 (1938).


Hamilton, Federalist No. 65.

Hamilton, Federalist No. 66.

Hamilton, Federalist No. 69.

Hamilton, Federalist No. 79.

Hamilton, Federalist No. 81.

Edited by Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, The Founders’ Constitution, 5 vols. (Liberty Fund, 2000; University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Gary L. McDowell, “High Crimes and Misdemeanors”: Recovering the Intentions of the Founders, 67 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 626 (1999).

Jonathan Turley, Reflections on Murder, Misdemeanors, and Madison, 28 Hofstra L. Rev. 439 (1999).

Jonathan Turley,  Senate Trials and Factional Disputes: Impeachment as a Madisonian Device, 49 Duke L.J. 1 (1999).

Michael J. Gerhardt, The Federal Impeachment Process: A Constitutional and Historical Analysis, (University of Chicago Press, 2nd ed. 2000.)

U.S. House. Constitution, Jefferson’s Manual and Rules of the House of Representatives of the United States 106th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington: U.S. GPO, 2001.) (1338 p. Biennial. H.DOC. 106-320. GPO#: Y1.1/7:106-320.)

Luke Edward Lawless, Case of James H. Peck : substance of an argument delivered before the District Court of the United States : at the first session thereof, held at St. Louis on the fourth Monday in November 1824, pursuant to an act of Congress entitled “An act enabling claimants to lands within the limits of the state of Missouri and territory of Arkansas to institute proceedings to try the validity of their claims (1830).

Samuel Chase, Report of the trial of the Hon. Samuel Chase : one of the associate justices of the Supreme court of the United States, before the High court of impeachment, composed of the Senate of the United States, for charges exhibited against him by the House (1805).


Raoul Berger,  The Founders’ Views — According to Jefferson Powell, 67 Tex. L. Rev. 1033 (1989).

Robert N. Clinton, “A Mandatory View of Federal Court Jurisdiction: a Guided Quest For The Original Understanding of Article III, 132 U. Pa. L. Rev. 741 (1984).

David P. Currie, “The Constitution in Congress: The First Congress and the Structure of Government, 1789-1791, 2 U. Chi. L. Sch. Roundtable 161 (1995).

Lloyd N. Cutler, “The American Constitutional Tradition of Shared And Separated Powers: Now Is The Time For All Good Men, 30 Wm. & Mary. L. Rev. 387 (1989).

David E. Engdahl, “John Marshall’s ‘Jeffersonian’ Concept of Judicial Review, 42 Duke L.J. 279 (1992).

Mitchell Franklin, “Romanist Infamy and the American Constitutional Conception of Impeachment,” 23 Buff. L. Rev. 313 (1975).

Mitchell Franklin, “Further Considerations Relating to Romanist Infamy and the American Constitutional Conception of Impeachment,24 Buff. L. Rev. 29 (1975).

Kent Greenfield, “Original Penumbras: Constitutional Interpretation in The First Year of Congress, 26 Conn. L. Rev. 79 (1993).

Gerald Gunther, “Congressional Power to Curtail Federal Court Jurisdiction: An Opinionated Guide to the Ongoing Debate, 36 Stan. L. Rev. 895 (1984).

Stewart Jay, “Origins of Federal Common Law: Part One, 133 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1003 (1985).

Brett W. King, “The Use of Supermajority Provisions in The Constitution: The Framers, The Federalist Papers And The Reinforcement of a Fundamental Principle, 8 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 363 (1998).

Napoleon B. Williams, Jr., “Historical and Constitutional Bases for the Senate’s Power to Use Masters or Committees to Receive Evidence in Impeachment, 50 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 512 (1975).

John Nichols, The Genius of Impeachment: the Founders Cure for Royalism and Why it Must be Applied to George W. Bush (2006).

Buckner F. Melton, The First Impeachment: the Constitution’s Framers and the Case of Senator William Blount (1999).

Buckner F. Melton, Jr., The First Impeachment: the Constitution’s Framers and the Case of Senator William Blount (Macon, Ga., Mercer University Press, 1998).

William H. Rehnquist, Grand Inquest: the Historic Impeachments of Justice Samuel Chase and President Andrew Johnson (New York, Morrow, 1992).

Alexander Simpson, A Treatise on Federal Impeachments (Philadelphia, Law Association of Philadelphia, 1916).

Justin Fernandez & Austin Sarat, High Crimes and Misdemeanors: the Impeachment Process (2001) (“explores what the framers of the Constitution meant by the phrase High Crimes and Misdemeanors.”).

William Bates, “Vagueness in the Constitution: The ImpeachmentPower, 25 Stan. L. Rev. 908 (1973).


Michael J. Gerhardt, The Federal Impeachment Process: a Constitutional and Historical Analysis (2000).

Peter Charles Hoffer and N.E.H. Hull, Impeachment in America,1635-1805 (1984).

Gaddis Smith, Impeachment: What are its Origins, History, and the Process by which it is Carried Out?, (1973).

M.V. Clarke, “The Origin of Impeachment,” Oxford Essays in Medieval Hist. (1934).

Charles Morgan, Jr., Hope Eastman, Mary Ellen Gale, and Judith Areen, “Impeachment: An Historical Overview,” 5 Seton Hall L. Rev. 689 (1974).

Michael L. Nash, “English Experience,” 124 New L.J. 223 (1974).

W.R. Riddell, “Impeachment in England and English Colonies,” 7 N.Y.U L. Rev. 702 (1930).

William Van Valkenberg, Note, “God Save the King from Overzealous Subordinates,” 1974 Utah L. Rev. 71 (1974).

Martha Ziskind, “Judicial Tenure in the American Constitution: English and American Precedents,” 1969 Sup. Ct. Rev. 135 (1969).


Aaron Klein & Brenda J. Elliott, Impeachable Offenses: The Case for Removing Barack Obama from Office (2013).

Brian M. Wilson, The Little Black Book on Whitewater (1996).

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, The Secret Life of Bill Clinton: the Unreported Stories, (1997).

John L. Jackley, Below the Beltway: Money, Power, and Sex in Bill Clinton’s Washington (1996).

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Bruce A. Ackerman, The Case against Lameduck Impeachment (1999) (“An incisive legal argument that the attempt to impeach then-President Bill Clinton was not only ethically troubling, but actually against the basic legal procedures of the House and Senate and thus unconstitutional. A wake-up call, relevant even today, of the lengths to which the American right will go in order to bring down their rivals, even under the scrutinizing eyes of the world.”).

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Keith A. Scarborough, Note, “‘Awful Discretion”: The Impeachment Experience in the States,” 55 Neb. L. Rev. 91 (1975).